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American Rockefeller family

American Rockefeller family (Picture 1)

Rockefeller family is a family of the United States, the founder is John Rockefeller, the family has founded the Rockefeller Foundation, the University of Chicago and so on. This has so far flourished six generations of the "world wealth mark" and the United States and even the international political and economic are inextricably linked. Standard Oil Company, Chase Bank, Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller Center, University of Chicago, Rockefeller University, Museum of Modern Art, and the collapse of the World Trade Center in "9 11" ... ... open the history of the United States, Rockefeller family everywhere.

Rockefeller's ancestors emigrated from Germany to the United States in the 18th century, the Rockefeller family headquarters in Westchester County, New York, located in the upper reaches of the Hudson River, New York Manhattan Island, an hour's drive, covering 3400 acres, comparable A small town. The main part of the estate was the 19th century by the family founder John Davidson Rockefeller hand-built, surrounded by gardens, fountains, racetracks and art sculptures, pleasant scenery.

After graduating from John Davison Rockefeller, he was a clerk at a firm that ran the grain. Three years later, only 19-year-old Rockefeller borrowed $ 1,000 at his 10% annual interest rate, plus $ 800 for his savings, and a company that runs grain and meat with Clarke. This is the first company of Rockefeller's life.

At that time, in the United States, Pennsylvania has found oil, thousands of people like the original gold boom as flock to the oil recovery area. After a period of time, Rockefeller suggested that businessmen do not invest in crude oil production, because there is excessive oil exploitation and limited demand, the oil market will fall. 3 years later, crude oil has repeatedly plummeted, Rockefeller is that the time to invest in oil, which greatly contrary to the general expectations. He co-invested $ 4,000 with Clark to open an oil refinery with a British Andrews working in a refinery. Andrews uses a new technology to extract kerosene, so that Andrews-Clark company rapid development.

Rockefeller realized the need to expand the business to withstand the impact of the stormy sea. Later, he joined the two well-funded, reputable investment partners, created a capital of 1 million US dollars of standard oil companies. At the end of 1879, the standard company had controlled 90% of the nation's oil refining industry. By 1880, 95% of the oil produced in the United States was refined by standard oil companies. Since the history of the United States, there has never been a business so completely completely dominate the market.

It was this time that Lockefeller's lawyer Dodd put forward the concept of "trust" as a monopoly. Under the guidance of Dodd's "Trust" theory, Rockefeller merged more than 40 manufacturers, monopolizing 80% of the country's oil refining industry and 90% of the tubing business. In 1886, the standard oil company has created a natural gas trust. Standard oil company finally named Mobil Oil Company. Trust is rapidly in the United States, the spread of the industry, in a very short period of time, this monopoly form accounted for 90% of the US economy. Rockefeller succeeded in creating a unique era in the history of the United States-the era of monopoly.

In 1910, when John Davidson Rockefeller found his wealth has reached nearly $ 1 billion, he began to consider how to use this wealth. Because he was not interested in buying a French manor or a Scottish castle and disdain for buying artwork, yachts or medieval charm, and all the rich people talked about, he invested a lot of his income in coal mines, Railways, insurance companies, banks and various types of production enterprises, the most famous of which is iron ore business.

As a monopoly of Rockefeller offended a lot of people: business rivals, Wall Street, the court, Congress. The control of the economy by monopolies makes society uneasy. Under the stick of Theodore Roosevelt's "antitrust law", Mobil was dismembered. The rickety of Rockefeller scolded old Roosevelt as despicable villain. And vowed no longer to subsidize the Republican candidate.

Incredibly, the frugal capitalists like Rockefeller turned out to be the biggest philanthropist in American history. As of the 1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation became the world's largest charity, and his sponsorship of medical education and public health was global, and China benefited so much that it was second only to the United States. He donated $ 530 million in his lifetime, and his entire family charity was sponsored by more than $ 1 billion.

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