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Ivan IV Vasilyevich

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Picture 1)

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (August 25, 1530 - March 28, 1584), known as Ivan IV, nicknamed Ivan the Terrible, the horrible Ivan, the first of the Russian Reich dynasty The Tsar (January 16, 1547 - March 28, 1584), the son of Moscow's Grand Duke Vasily III and his second wife, Ye Linna Greenska. Ivan IV was in his throne at the age of three, and his mother temporarily regented, but suffered from the violent violence of the great aristocrats. At that time, the various groups fought fiercely, swayed and murdered, which had a profound impact on the formation of Ivan IV's character and its activities. He developed a strong-willed and ruthless character from his childhood, excited, cruel, and severely suppressed the aristocrats. During the reign of Ivan IV, the "Tsar" became the official title of the Russian monarch.

Ivan IV Vasilyevich was crowned the Tsar in 1547. After he came to power, he established a ministerial meeting in 1549 to compile a new code. From 1549 to 1560, the central and local administrative, legal, fiscal, military, and religious aspects were reformed. The government of Ivan IV tried to consolidate the authoritarian regime and strengthen the centralization of the state. The basic content of its military reform is to improve the military command system, limit the system of selecting officers as the door, establish a standing army, rectify the service of the Russian local troops, and adjust the Russian border garrison and squad service. This reform laid the foundation for the regular Russian army. During the ruling period, the first military decree was formulated - "Aristocratic meeting resolution on squatting and garrisoning." The reform of Ivan IV, especially the military reform, has made Russia stronger.

Beginning in 1547, Ivan IV practiced dictatorship. The policy of the internal policy is to oppose the separation of the great aristocracy. The specific manifestation was that in 1565, the Tsar's special rule system was established, that is, the nationalization was divided into two parts: the ordinary area and the special area, which greatly attacked the nobility. It broke all the power restrictions of the lord's polity on the Tsar. The former Grand Duke had very little power and was restricted by the lords. Ivan IV eliminated the lord's polity, established the tsarist autocracy, cracked down on the local separatist forces, unified Russia, and established the central government. centralization. Ivan Leidi also formed a special ruling army that was absolutely loyal to the Tsar and ruthless to the subjects.

Subsequently, a massacre began, peaking during the period of special jurisdiction from 1565 to 1572. The object of the massacre was mainly the feudal princes and the great aristocrats who had the strength to resist the tsar. About 4,000 great aristocrats were killed in seven years. While eradicating the great aristocracy, Ivan IV fostered the power of the small aristocrats and the citizens. The positive role of the special rule system was to eliminate the hidden dangers of the local lords and strengthen the centralization, which may have been experienced in the development of Russian history. One step, although the method used is too intense.

But some other tyranny of Ivan the Terrible can only be explained by the tyranny of the autocratic monarch. His army ransacked Novgorod, which has always had an independent and republican tendency. It is estimated that tens of thousands of people are suffering, as well as the massacre of the Kazan people during the annexation of the Kazan Khanate. Only nine of the old lord families survived, and most of the land was confiscated; Moscow bishop Philip was strangled for condemning the cruel rule of Ivan IV. Finally, in 1581, Ivan IV lost his hand in the rage and killed the heir, Prince Ivan. His massacre finally ended in an irreparable guilt.

Ivan IV Vasilyevich was 54 years old and died of a stroke. Two months after the death of Ivan the Terrible, his son Fyodor Ivanovich succeeded in reigning, and solemnly declared: "According to God's will, our father, the great tsar who has passed away, is full of Rose. The great prince, the venerable king Ivan Vasilyevich, left the kingdom of the earth and received the icon of the angel into the kingdom of heaven; and he blessed his son in the name of his own ruling Russian kings. "

Ivan IV has done a great job in territorial expansion. He has annexed the Kazan Khanate (Kazan Siege War in 1552), the Astrakhan Khanate (1556) and the Siberian Khanate (1579). He also defeated the Khmer Khanate, and Russia’s territory advanced to the east, and the Mongols no longer became a threat. In some of these battles, he personally fought, bravely fought, and put forward strategies such as "continuously attacking the enemy" and "starting in the field to eliminate the enemy's vitality." In addition, he annexed the Great Nogah Khanate and Bashkir, bringing many people from the North Caucasus to Russia. In 1558, he launched the Livonian war in an attempt to seize the Baltic Sea estuary. This war struck a quarter of a century (1558 ~ 1583), consuming most of Ivan's life, and the major Baltic countries were involved. Among them, Russia, due to isolation and helplessness, finally failed, and the wish to seize the Baltic Sea estuary was completed by Peter the Great after more than 100 years.

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