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Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (Picture 1)

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (1878–1953), Georgian, Soviet politician, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, President of the Soviet Council of Ministers (Soviet Prime Minister), Grand Marshal of the Soviet Union It was the highest leader of the Soviet Union (1924-1953), and had a profound influence on the Soviet Union and the world in the twentieth century. There is a "Complete Collection of Stalin". Stalin had assisted Lenin in leading the October Revolution, and after Lenin’s death, he served as chairman of the Soviet People’s Committee (later renamed the Soviet Council of Ministers). During his tenure, he put forward the idea of ​​"establishing socialism first in a country", abandoning Lenin's new economic policy, and fully carrying out socialist industrialization and agricultural collectivization, making the Soviet Union a heavy industry and a military power, but also leading to the Ukrainian famine. And the Kazakh famine. In the Second World War, he led the Soviet Red Army and defeated the Axis with the Allies and won the victory of the Soviet War.

Stalin was born in Gori, the ancient town of Georgia on December 18, 1878. His father was a peasant-born shoemaker. His mother died in July 1937. She is the daughter of a serf. Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin's original surname, Zhugashvili, the name of Stalin was changed himself in adulthood, meaning steel. At the age of 16, Stalin entered a Orthodox secondary school in Tbilisi, where he achieved excellent results and received scholarships. During this period, he was exposed to some revolutionary books and was deeply influenced by Marxism. In August 1898, Stalin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. In February 1917, the Russian Revolution broke out in February, the Romanov dynasty died, and Stalin was released. He returned to St. Petersburg on March 25, and continued to work on the editorial work of the Bolshevik Pravda with Kamenev and Molotov. In the intra-party meeting held in April, Lenin advocated overthrowing the interim government, and Stalin and others changed their positions to support Lenin. In 1918, the Soviet-Russian civil war broke out. Stalin and Lev Trotsky and others were elected to the five-member bureau formed by Lenin. In 1924, when Lenin died, Stalin began to lead the Soviet socialist construction.

In the 1930s, Stalin experienced a major cleansing campaign in the Soviet Union. In the early 1930s, the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) headed by Stalin exaggerated the seriousness of the class struggle. The Sergei Kirov assassination incident on December 1, 1934 was used as a trigger to launch a large-scale reversal. motion. From 1937 to 1938, it was called the "Great Terror" period of the Soviet Union. During this period, 1.3 million people were sentenced, of which 682,000 were shot. Many people were arrested and detained in the Gulaglau camp. Some people died in harsh living conditions such as hunger and disease. Many ethnic minorities in the Soviet Union were collectively transferred and exiled, including: Poles, Volga Germans, Moldovans, Jews, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Crimean Tatars, Chechens, Koreans and many more. He also established personal worship, indulged Li Senkeism, launched the "Great Cleansing" campaign, mass slaughtered and oppressed the exile of opposition leaders and even ordinary cadres and the masses. According to the General Political and Security Bureau of the Soviet People's Committee and the Ministry of the Interior People's Committee from 1930 to 1953. In criminal cases prosecuted by the authorities, 3,778,234 people were suppressed, of which 786,098 were sentenced to death (shots).

Stalin led the Soviet industrialization and five-year plan. The first five-year plan was launched from 1928 to 1932, with the main goal of developing agricultural collectivization. Stalin realized that industrial progress must be supported by the development of the agricultural base. Therefore, Stalin has incorporated the national agricultural development into the plan and promoted modern farming methods through the merger of small farms into large collective farms. Under this circumstance, the problem of insufficient food in 1930-1931 has already appeared. In the autumn of 1932, the vast areas of the Soviet Union suffered widespread severe famine. The famine in the southern part of Ukraine and the middle reaches of the Volga River was the most serious. At the same time, the government prohibited the victims from moving outwards. The traffic between Ukraine and the Don Rivers was interrupted. Any hungry people who tried to leave Ukraine without permission were arrested as "class enemies." According to conservative estimates, from 1932 to 1933, 2.2 million Ukrainian people were starved to death.

The second five-year plan was implemented from 1933 to 1937. Its main goal was to transform agriculture into heavy industry. Stalin set high production targets for industrial production such as coal, iron and steel, and ordered the construction of power stations and mines. The oil field has improved transportation facilities. As a result, industrial output has increased significantly in just a few years. Taking steel production as an example, steel production in 1938 nearly tripled before the First World War and more than 100 times higher than the lowest tide in 1920. In the United States, the combined output is higher than the United Kingdom and France. The third five-year plan, which began in 1938, focused on the development of the military industry. Stalin prepared for the upcoming war by developing some civilian industries similar to the military industry. In 1940, the Soviet Union’s weapons production was second only to Germany, reaching 5 billion U.S. dollars, which was equivalent to the sum of arms production between the United Kingdom and the United States. In 1941, it was the leader of the ranks.

In the Second World War, Stalin led the Soviet Red Army and defeated the Axis with the Allies and won the victory of the Soviet War. In the spring of 1945, the Soviet army entered the territory of Germany with the strength of 2.5 troops from three fronts. On April 27, he broke into the central area of ​​Berlin. On the 30th, Hitler committed suicide in the basement of the Prime Minister's Office. On the evening of August 8, 1945, the Soviet government stated to the Japanese ambassador to Moscow that the Soviet Union, in accordance with the spirit of the Yalta Conference, was loyal to the obligations of the Allies and announced that it would enter into a state of war with Japan from the next day. Within a week, the Soviet Union and Mongolian forces quickly defeated the Japanese Kwantung Army. On August 15, Emperor Showa announced that Japan would surrender. The Second World War ended with the victory of the Allies. After World War II, with Churchill's famous Iron Curtain speech, the East and West ideology sharply opposed, and the world gradually formed a Cold War pattern. Stalin supported the socialist camp and confronted the US-led NATO in the Cold War.

When the 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Union (Bolshevik) reorganized the Central Political Bureau into the Presidium of the CPSU in October 1952, Stalin was elected as a member of the Central Bureau and secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. On the evening of March 5, 1953, the President of the Soviet Council of Ministers, the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Grand Marshal Stalin suffered from cerebral hemorrhage and died in the villa of Kunzevo on the outskirts of Moscow at the age of 74. His body was placed in a crystal cymbal and placed in the tomb of Lenin. However, Stalin’s body was only placed in Lenin’s tomb for eight years. In 2008, Russian National Television held a "Greatest Russian" selection campaign. Although Stalin had launched a major cleansing campaign and had a major famine during his term, he still did not hinder him from ranking in the Russian historical figures. Three (four to six are Pushkin, Peter the Great, and Lenin), second only to Alexander Nevsky and Peter Stolypin.

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