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Chinese leader Mao Zedong

Chinese leader Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893 - September 9, 1976), Xiangtan, Hunan. The leader of the Chinese people, Marxists, great proletarian revolutionaries, strategists and theorists, the main founders and leaders of the Communist Party of China, the Chinese People's Liberation Army and the People's Republic of China, poets and calligraphers. From 1949 to 1976, Mao Zedong served as the highest leader of the People's Republic of China. His contribution to the development of Marxism-Leninism, military theory, and his theoretical contribution to the Communist Party was called Mao Zedong Thought. Mao Zedong is regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of the modern world. Time magazine also named him one of the 100 most influential people in the 20th century.

Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in a peasant family in Xiangtan, Hunan. Before and after the May Fourth Movement, he contacted and accepted Marxism. In November 1920, he established a communist organization in Hunan. In July 1921, he attended the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and later served as Secretary of the CPC Committee of the Hunan Region, leading the workers' movements in Changsha and Anyuan. In June 1923, he attended the "Three Majors" of the Chinese Communist Party and was elected as the Central Executive Committee to participate in the work of the central leadership. After the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party in January 1924, he served as the acting minister of the Propaganda Department of the Kuomintang Central Committee in Guangzhou, and edited the "Political Weekly" to host the 6th Peasant Movement Workshop. In November 1926, he served as Secretary of the Peasant Movement Committee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.

In the winter of 1925, in the spring of 1927, Mao Zedong published such works as "Analysis of the Classes of Chinese Society" and "Report on the Investigation of Hunan Peasant Movement", pointing out the important position of the peasant issue in the Chinese revolution and the extreme importance of the proletariat leading the peasant struggle. Mao Zedong He also criticized Chen Duxiu’s right-wing thinking.

After the all-round cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party broke down, at the emergency meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in August 1927, he proposed that "the political power was obtained from the guns", that is, the idea of ​​taking political power by revolutionary armed forces. After the meeting, the autumn harvest uprising was carried out on the borders of Hunan and Jiangxi. Then he led the troops to Jinggangshan, launched the agrarian revolution, and created the first rural revolutionary base. The Chinese communists, led by Mao Zedong, proceeded from the reality of China and developed armed struggle in the weak rural areas of the Kuomintang. They created ways to surround the city and finally seize the city and the national government.

In October 1934, Mao Zedong participated in the Long March of the Red Army. On the way to the Long March, in January 1935, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held an enlarged meeting in Guizhou and established a new central leadership represented by Mao Zedong. In October, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Red Army arrived in northern Shaanxi and ended the Long March. In December, the report on "Strategy against Japanese Imperialism" clarified the anti-Japanese national united front policy. In December 1936, with Zhou Enlai and other people, the Xi'an Incident was resolved. The Kuomintang and the Communist Party from the civil war to the second cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party and jointly resisted Japan. In the same month, Mao Zedong wrote "Strategic Issues in the Chinese Revolutionary War." In the summer of 1937, he wrote "practical theory" and "contradictory theory."

After the beginning of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China headed by him adhered to the principle of united front and independence, mobilized the people, carried out guerrilla warfare behind the enemy, and established many anti-Japanese bases. During the War of Resistance Against Japan, he published important works such as "On Protracted War" and "New Democracy". In February 1942, he led the whole party to carry out the rectification movement, corrected subjectivism and sectarianism, and enabled the whole party to further grasp the basic direction of the combination of the universal truth of Marxism-Leninism and the concrete practice of the Chinese revolution, and to win the war against Japan. Laid the foundation of thought.

After the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, Chiang Kai-shek attempted to eliminate the Communist Party and its armed forces, and Mao Zedong proposed a policy of struggle. In August 1945, he went to Chongqing to negotiate with Chiang Kai-shek, indicating the Chinese Communist Party’s desire for peace in the country. After Chiang Kai-shek launched a full-scale civil war in the summer of 1946, Mao Zedong and Zhu De and Zhou Enlai led the Chinese People's Liberation Army to carry out active defenses, concentrated their superior forces, and annihilated the enemy. From March 1947 to March 1948, with Zhou Enlai and Ren Bishi moved to northern Shaanxi, commanding the northwest battlefield and the national liberation war. In the summer of 1947, the Chinese People's Liberation Army shifted from strategic defense to strategic offensive, and overthrew the Kuomintang government through the three major battles of Liaoning, Huaihai and Pingjin.

On October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was established and Mao Zedong was elected as the chairman of the Central People's Government. In June 1950, he presided over the Third Plenary Session of the Seventh CPC Central Committee and proposed the overall task of fighting for the basic improvement of the state's financial and economic conditions. In October, because the US military broke into the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and threatened the situation in northeastern China, the CPC Central Committee headed by Mao Zedong decided to carry out the war against US aggression. From 1950 to 1952, under his leadership, he carried out land reform, crack down on counter-revolution and other democratic reforms, launched a "three-reverse" campaign against corruption, against waste, against bureaucracy, and against bribery, against tax evasion, and against piracy. Defrauding state property, opposing the work of cutting corners, and opposing the theft of economic intelligence. In June 1953, according to his suggestion, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China announced the party's general line during the transition period and began systematic socialist industrialization and socialist transformation of the private ownership of production materials.

Since the 1950s, he has led the CCP and waged a resolute struggle against the great powers of the Communist Party leaders and the interference and control of China.

In May 1966, because Mao Zedong made an extreme estimate of the situation of class struggle in the country, he launched the "Cultural Revolution" movement. This movement became particularly violent by the manipulation of two counter-revolutionary groups, Lin Biao and Jiang Qing. It greatly exceeded Mao Zedong's expectations and his control. It lasted for ten years and caused serious damage and loss in many aspects of China. In the "Cultural Revolution", Mao Zedong also stopped and corrected some specific mistakes. He led the struggle to smash the Lin Biao counter-revolutionary group and prevented Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao from taking the highest leadership.

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