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China's space father Qian Xuesen

China's space father Qian Xuesen (Picture 1)


Qian Xuesen (1911.12.11 - 2009.10.31), the Han nationality, was born in Shanghai, China. The world's leading scientist, aerodynamics, China's manned spaceflight founder, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, China two bombs a star meritorious service medal winner, known as "the father of China's space", "the father of the Chinese missile" "China's father of automation and control" and "King of the Rockets", due to the effectiveness of Qian Xuesen return, the Chinese missile, atomic bomb launch at least 20 years ahead of schedule.

Qian was born in Shanghai in 1911. September 1923, into the Beijing Normal University secondary school. 1929 admitted to the Ministry of Railways Jiaotong University Shanghai School of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Railway Engineering, 1934 graduated from the National Chiao Tung University, in June to obtain the seventh session of Tsinghua University students. In September 1935, he entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Aeronautics, and in September 1936 he received a master's degree in aeronautical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and later moved to the California Institute of Technology to become the world's leading scientist von Carmen s student.

Qian Xuesen has a master's degree in aviation engineering and a doctorate in aviation and mathematics. July 1938 to August 1955, Qian Xuesen in the United States engaged in aerodynamics, solid mechanics and rockets, missiles and other fields of research, and with the mentor to complete high-speed aerodynamics research topics, and the establishment of "Carmen-Qian Xuesen" formula, At the age of twenty-eight became a world-renowned aerodynist. In 1939, he received a doctorate in aviation from the California Institute of Technology. In 1943, he was an assistant professor at the California Institute of Technology. In 1945 he was an associate professor at the California Institute of Technology. In 1947, he was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1947, he married in Shanghai and Jiang Ying. In 1949, he served as Director of the Jet Propulsion Center of the California Institute of Technology. In 1953, Qian Xuesen formally put forward the concept of physical mechanics, advocated from the micro-law of matter to determine its macro-mechanical properties, opened up a new field of high temperature and pressure. In 1954, "Engineering Cybernetics" published in English, the Russian version of the book, German version, the Chinese version was published in 1956, 1957, 1958.

In 1949, when the news of the birth of the People's Republic of China came to the United States, Qian Xuesen and his wife Jiang Ying hope to return home early for their own country. The United States to McCarthy led the government, the implementation of a comprehensive tracing of the Communists. Qian Xuesen was revoked by the US military department to sign the certificate of confidentiality because he was suspected of being a communist and refused to expose his friends. Qian Xuesen very angry, as a reason to return home. In 1950, when Qian was ready to return home, he was stopped by US officials and imprisoned in prison. At that time, the US Navy chief, Danny Gemble, claimed that Qian Xuesen would increase the combat effectiveness of the army, wherever he went. Since then, Qian Xuesen has been persecuted by the US government, but also lost valuable freedom. The immigration control his home and detained him for 14 days on the island of Tennessee until he received the $ 15,000 huge bail sent by the California Institute of Technology. Later, the customs confiscated his luggage, including 800 kilograms of books and notebooks. The US prosecutor once again examined all of his material before proving that he was innocent.

In the early 1950s, the news of Qian Xuesen's persecution in the United States soon spread to China, where Chinese friends of science and technology helped Qian Xuesen through various means. The CPC Central Committee is very concerned about the situation of the United States in the United States, the Chinese government issued a statement publicly condemned the US government in violation of their wishes, imprisoned Qian Xuesen. In 1954, a chance, he saw in the newspaper Chen Shutong standing on the tower of Tiananmen Square, the identity of the National People's Congress Standing Committee vice chairman, he decided to give the father's good friend to write for help. While Premier Zhou Enlai was very anxious for this time, at this time Chen Shu Tong received a letter from the other side of the ocean, he opened a look, signed "Qian Xuesen", turned out to ask the motherland government to help him return home.

In April 1954, the five countries of the United States and Britain and the Soviet Union held in Geneva to discuss and resolve the DPRK issue and the restoration of Indochina peace international conference. Zhou Enlai, head of the Chinese delegation attending the meeting, said that a group of foreign students and scientists in China were detained in the United States and instructed the Americans that if the British diplomats had been able to clear up the relationship with us, we should seize this opportunity to open up new Of the contact channel. In 1955, after the continuous efforts of Premier Chou En-lai in his diplomatic negotiations with the United States, including even the release of 11 US military pilots captured in the Korean War as an exchange, August 4, 1955, Qian Xuesen received the US immigration to allow him to return home announcement of. September 17, 1955, Qian Xuesen return to the desire to finally be realized, this day Qian Xuesen carrying his wife Jiang Ying and a pair of young children, boarded the "Cleveland President" ship, set foot on the journey back to the motherland. October 1, 1955 morning, Qian Xuesen finally returned to his dream of the motherland, back to his hometown.

After returning, Zhou Enlai in all respects have given Qian Xuesen cordial and meticulous care, in his later years Qian Xuesen also excitedly recalled a past: 1970, China's first artificial satellite "Dongfanghong" launch on the eve of Premier Zhou Enlai convened the relevant Researchers in the Great Hall of the meeting, parting, Premier Zhou Enlai deliberately stopped Qian Xuesen said: Qian Xuesen, you do not be too tired. Qian Xuesen often said to his people, the greatest impact on his life and help the largest two people, one is the founding minister Zhou Enlai, one is his father-in-law Jiang Baili.

In early 1956, Qian Xuesen to the CPC Central Committee and State Council put forward the "establishment of China's defense aviation industry submissions." At the same time, Qian Xuesen set up China's first rocket, missile research institute, the fifth research institute of the Ministry of Defense, and served as the first president. He led the completion of the "Jet and rocket technology to establish" planning, involved in short-range missiles, short-range missiles and China's first man-made earth satellite development, direct leadership in the use of short-range missiles to carry the atomic bomb "Test, participated in the development of China's short-range missile carrying atomic bomb" two bombs "test, involved in the development of China's first interstellar aviation development plan, the development of the establishment of engineering cybernetics and systems and so on. Under the leadership of Qian Xuesen, on October 16, 1964, China's first atomic bomb exploded successfully. On June 17, 1967, China's first hydrogen bomb explosion test was successful. On April 24, 1970, China's first man-made satellite launched successfully The"

In 1957, under the Qianxue Sen initiative, the Chinese Institute of Mechanics was established, Qian Xuesen was unanimously elected as the first director. On February 18, Premier Chou En-lai signed an order to appoint Qian Xuesen as the first president of the Fifth Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense. On November 16, Premier Chou En-lai appointed Qian Xuesen as the president of the Fifth Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense. In the same year, Qian Xuesen's "Engineering Cybernetics" won the first prize of the Natural Science Award of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and was elected by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In June 1957, the Preparatory Committee of the Chinese Society of Automation was established in Beijing, Qian Xuesen as chairman. In September the same year, the International Association for the establishment of the General Assembly recommended Qian Xuesen for the first IFAC Council executive director. Qian has done pioneering work in many fields of mechanics. He made a lot of research results in aerodynamics, the most prominent is the proposed cross-flow similarity law, and with the Carmen, the first proposed the concept of hypersonic flow for the aircraft in the early to overcome the thermal barrier, Based on the development of aerodynamics laid an important theoretical basis. The formula used in the design of the high sub-sonic aircraft is the Carmen-Qianxue Sen formula named after Carmen and Qian Xuesen. In addition, Qian Xuesen and Carmen in the late 30s also jointly proposed the spherical shell and cylindrical shell of the new nonlinear instability theory.

Qian Xuesen has become one of the most outstanding representatives in the aerospace field in the 1940s and has become one of the few stars in the scientific sciences of many disciplines in the twentieth century. Qian Xuesen also made great contributions to the growth of new China Of the older generation of scientists among the most influential, the most outstanding outstanding achievements of the outstanding figures, he is the new Chinese patriotic returned to the most representative of the national builders, he is the new history of China's great people scientists. Qian Xuesen a quiet study of life, but no matter what the times, where he chose, is not only a scientist's highest duty, but also a grandfather of the highest mission. His life experiences and achievements, in the history of China's history, the Chinese nation's history and human world history, while leaving a dazzling light, illuminated the way. As a pioneer of China's space industry, he is not only a treasure of knowledge, scientific banner, but also the backbone of the nation, the example of the global Chinese, he showed the world the Chinese style.

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