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American inventor Thomas Edison

American inventor Thomas Edison (Picture 1)


Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was born in Milan, Ohio, and died in West Orange, New Jersey, USA. Inventor, entrepreneur. Edison is the first person in the history of mankind to use the mass production principles and electrical engineering research laboratory to engage in invention patents and have a significant impact on the world. He invented the phonograph, film camera, light bulb, he has a great impact on the world. He invented a total of more than 2,000 items, with more than 1,000 patents. Edison was named 9th in the United States by the authority of the United States, "Atlantic Monthly".

In 1854, due to the railway was opened, making the Milan Canal merchant business greatly reduced, Edison father's business has no way to maintain it, because a life increasingly difficult, in order to seek another development, Edison moved, they left Milan moved to Michigan, Start a new life. In 1855, he began to go to school, that school only one class, principals and teachers are Mr. Engel. Because Edison often asked the teacher in the class some alternative questions (such as: how the wind is produced), just three months time, he was dismissed by the teacher.

Because the mother Nancy was a teacher of a women's school, is a rich educational experience, she does not think their children are "low energy", so Nancy himself taught Edison. According to Nancy weekdays to observe, Edison is not "low energy", and often show talent. Nancy often let Edison do the experiment himself, once talked about Galileo's "Leaning Tower Experiment", Nancy let Edison to the tower to try, Edison took two different sizes and weights of the ball, from the tower Thrown, the two balls at the same time landing, Edison feel very magical, and excited to tell the mother of experimental results, the experiment is also engraved in Edison mind. Edison under the guidance of his mother read the British Renaissance writers Shakespeare, Dickens's writings and many important historical books, such as Edward Gibbon's "Roman Empire decline history", David Hume's "British history", he also Read some of Thomas Paine's writings, which have influenced his life.

One day in August 1862, Edison saved a boy on the train track, the father of the child is the railway station owner McKenzie, he was very grateful to Edison, to teach Edison telegraph technology, under the guidance of Mackenzie, Edison Learned telegraph technology and issued his first telegram. In 1863, Edison introduced by McKenzie, served as a railway hub telecommunications operator, but not long before he was fired. In 1864 to 1867, Edison in the United States as a service officer, living a wandering life, life is not guaranteed, during which Edison changed ten jobs, he was dismissed five times, there are five times his own resignation. Edison went to many places, Stravard, Adrian, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Nashville, Tennessee, Memphis, Louisville, Huron.

In late autumn of 1869, Edison came to work in New York, but when he was looking for a job in a company, it happened that a telegraph was broken, and Edison soon repaired the telegraph and got the general manager Of the appreciation, he became a telegraph technician, with a stable working environment and wages, for his later invention provides a good condition. In October of the same year, Edison and Franklin Pope co-founded the "Pope-Edison" company, specializing in electrical engineering scientific instruments, at the same time invented the ordinary printing press. In 1870, Edison sold the patent for the printing press to a Wall Street company, let the manager out of a price, would like to ask for thousands of dollars is enough, the manager actually gave Edison forty thousand dollars. Edison received $ 40,000 to build a factory in New Jersey to manufacture all kinds of electrical machinery.

In 1877, Edison improved the phone that was invented by Alexander Bell, and put it into practical use, and soon opened the telephone company. Edison and Bell, two hostile companies in London, launched a fierce competition. In the process of improving the phone, found in the microphone in the membrane board, with the sound and vibration, he found a needle, erected on the membrane board, gently press the top of the hand, and then speak to the membrane, the sound The speed of the level of the short needle corresponding to produce different changes in the quiver, Edison draw the sketch for the assistant to make the machine, and then after several transformation, the first phonograph was born.

In September 1878, Edison began to study the lights, but because of Edison's economic problems had to find financial support, so set up a joint-stock company in order to provide financial support for the experiment, and soon he found a few shareholders, they are willing to pay for Edison research light The But Edison often failed, and soon spent fifty thousand dollars, part of the shareholders of the faith began to shake, Edison hard to persuade the shareholders decided to take fifty thousand dollars to support Edison. October 21, 1879, the successful development of light bulbs, which he used nearly 1600 kinds of materials for testing, continuous use of 45 hours later, this light bulb filament was blown, which is the first human beings have a wide range of practical value Of the light bulb, this light bulb has "high resistance incandescent bulb", "carbonized cotton bulb" a variety of names, made of carbonized cotton. In 1880, Edison dispatched assistants and experts in the world to find suitable bamboo, there are about six thousand, of which the Japanese bamboo made of carbon wire is the most practical, sustainable lighting for more than a thousand hours, to achieve the purpose of durability, which The bulb is called "carbonized bamboo light bulb".

In 1884, Nicholas Tesla came to New York with the advice of employer Charles Bachler, who went to Edison's lab job, and Edison immediately hired Tesla. Tesla progressed quickly and helped the company solve many problems. But Tesla believes that supplying power to the user, AC should be better than DC, and that he can make an alternator, but Edison does not agree with Tesla's view that DC is better and more secure than AC. In 1886, Tesla and Edison's scientific philosophy of disagreement and his everywhere obstructed to leave Edison's company, and he created the "Tesla Electric and Electric Manufacturing Company" began to study the exchange, while Edison's company was Operated by direct current, so Tesla became Edison's biggest competitor. Because AC is more suitable for long-distance transmission, more competitive than direct current, and more costly lower profits, Edison Electric Company gradually lost market share. In 1892, under the auspices of the US "financial giants" Morgan, Edison General Electric merged with Thomson Houston Electric Power Company, removing "Edison" and becoming "General Electric Company", Edison sadly out.

October 21, 1929, is the 50th anniversary of the invention of light bulbs, people celebrated for Edison, Germany Einstein, France Curie and other scientists to congratulate. Unfortunately, at this celebration, when Edison spoke, due to excessive excitement, suddenly fainting, since his body deteriorated. August 1, 1931, Edison feel discomfort, the doctor diagnosed, he also suffering from chronic nephritis, uremia, diabetes. When Edison dies, the doctors and Edison's many friends and relatives are sitting in front of his bed, seeing his breath has become increasingly weak, October 18, 1931, the heart finally stopped beating. May be in the doctor to announce his death occasion, he suddenly sat up again, said a very strange words: "really can not think of, there is so beautiful," finished this sentence, he died. Edison in 84 years of life there are many inventions, he has been persistent, dedicated to the invention, in addition to his phonograph, light bulbs, telephone, telegraph, film and other aspects of invention and contribution, in the mining, construction, chemical and other fields, He also has a lot of creation and insight, he made a great contribution to the civilization and progress of mankind.

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