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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (Picture 1)


Michael Faraday (1791–1867), a British physicist, chemist, and a well-known self-taught scientist, was born in a poor blacksmith family in Newington, Surrey, and only attended elementary school. In 1831, he made a key breakthrough in the power field and changed human civilization forever. Michael Faraday is a student and assistant to the famous British chemist David. His discovery laid the foundation for electromagnetics and was the pioneer of Maxwell. On October 17, 1831, Faraday discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction for the first time, and then obtained the method of generating alternating current. On October 28, 1831, Faraday invented the disc generator, the first generator created by mankind. Because of his great contribution to electromagnetism, he is known as the "father of electricity" and "the father of alternating electricity."

Born on September 22, 1791, a poor blacksmith family in Newington, Surrey. His father is a blacksmith, frail and sick, with a modest income, and can barely maintain the food and clothing of life. Due to poverty, Faraday’s family could not provide him with school, so Faraday did not receive formal education at an early age and read only two years of primary school. But the father pays great attention to the education of the children, and they are required to be diligent and simple, not to be greedy for money, to be a person of integrity. This has had a great impact on Faraday's thoughts and character.

In 1803, for the sake of his livelihood, Michael Faraday became a newsboy on the streets. In the second year, he went to an apprenticeship in a bookstore and bookmaker's house. Books in the bookstore are piled up. Faraday has a strong desire for knowledge, reading all kinds of books eagerly and eagerly, and gaining a lot of knowledge about natural sciences, especially the article on electricity in the Encyclopedia Britannica, which strongly attracts him. He worked hard to put book knowledge into practice, using electrostatic waste to make electric motors, and conducting simple chemical and physical experiments. He also established a study group with young friends, often discussing issues and exchanging ideas. Emphasis on the characteristics of practice, especially scientific experiments, is consistent in the scientific activities of Fara's first students.

In 1821 Faraday completed the first major electric invention. Two years ago, Oster discovered that if there is current flowing through the circuit, the magnetic needle of the ordinary compass near it will shift. Faraday was inspired by the idea that if the magnet is fixed, the coil may move. Based on this assumption, he successfully invented a simple device. In the device, as long as current flows through the line, the line will rotate around a magnet. In fact, Faraday invented the first electric motor, the first device to use the current to move the object. Although the device is simple, it is the ancestor of all the motors used in the world today.

As a talented electrician, Michael Faraday has set a new road ahead in the new field of electromagnetism. In 1837 he introduced the concept of electric and magnetic fields, pointing out that there were fields around the electric and magnetic fields, which broke the traditional concept of Newton's mechanics of "over-distance". In 1838, he proposed a new concept of power lines to explain electrical and magnetic phenomena, which is a major breakthrough in physics theory. In 1843, Faraday proved the law of conservation of charge by using the famous "ice bucket experiment". Faraday cultivated in the new field of electromagnetism. In order to explore the relationship between electromagnetic and light, he spent a lot of effort on optical glass. In 1845, after numerous failures, he finally discovered the "magneto-optical effect." He experimentally confirmed the interaction between light and magnetism, laying the foundation for the unified theory of electricity, magnetism and light.

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