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European castle

European castle (Picture 1)


The castle was a product of the medieval Europe. From 1066 to 1400, it was the heyday of the castle. The European aristocracy clashed for land, food, livestock and population. The intensive war led to the construction of more and more nobles. , bigger and bigger castles, to guard their territory. In addition to its military defenses, the castle also has political expansion of territory and control of the place.

Since the Stone Age, people have been using fortifications and civil engineering. Before the ninth century AD, there was never a real castle in Europe. But with the invasion of the Vikings and the formation of overly fragmented feudal political forces, thousands of castles were scattered throughout Europe between the ninth and fifteenth centuries. In 1905, taking the statistics of this country in France as an example, it shows that there are more than 10,000 castles in the territory. In the development of the castle's architectural art, two representative styles are formed, Romanesque and Gothic.

Romanesque castle, meaning "the shadow of Rome", popular in Western Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. The main feature of the Romanesque architecture is his semicircular shape and the tubular vault inherited from the ancient Romans. The arches are representative of the buildings of this period, and are generally applied to the pilasters and closed arcades, which are both strong and artistic. There is also a circular tower that makes the tower not easily damaged. Other architectural features include the use of narrow windows, semi-circular arches, low domes, and door frames that are picked up layer by layer. Due to the large number of columns and vaults of various shapes, the whole building achieves a sturdy, balanced, stable and saturated aesthetic effect. The narrow window forms a strong contrast with the vast space inside, making the interior of the castle dim and deep. Extremely deep, giving a sense of mystery and darkness.

Gothic architecture gives a feeling of rising. There is almost no wall in the whole building. There is a tall and large window between the main faces of the skeleton. The internal skeleton structure of this building is barely exposed with vertical lines and a sturdy slanting roll, making his interior wide and high. It is bright; for the Gothic sense of ascension, it can make people have a peculiar reverence in the psychological, which will cause a sense of slamming and piousness of the soul. This is very conducive to the expression of religious subjects, so it is widely used by the church, and the castle's use of Gothic architecture is entirely out of its exquisiteness. The exquisite Gothic castle is also characterised by its luxurious interiors, which are mainly reflected in these two points – glass inlaid windows and sculptures. Glass inlaid windows are an iconic feature of Gothic architecture. When the sun shines through the mosaic window, the colored light creates an amazing beauty on the mottled and quirky walls.

During the feudal society, the local aristocracy provided legal order and protection, leaving residents unaffected by looters such as Vikings. The purpose of the nobility building the castle was to protect and provide a safe base controlled by military force. In fact, it is generally believed that the function of the castle is used to defend, but it is a view that is inconsistent with the facts, because the original purpose of construction is to be used as a tool for attack. Its function is to serve as a base for professional soldiers, especially knights, and to control the surrounding countryside. When the central power of the king fell behind for various reasons, the network of castles and the military force they supported provided political stability.

Since the ninth century AD, local strongmen have begun to occupy all parts of Europe with castles. These early castles were mostly designed and built to be simple, but slowly developed into sturdy stone buildings. They belong to the king or the king's family. Although the nobles argued that they were built by the barbarians, they actually used it to establish control over the place. This often happens because there is no strategic defense terrain in Europe, and there is no strong centralized government at the time. The Poitiers region of France is the best example of a castle in Europe. Before the invasion of the Vikings in the ninth century, there were only three castles; but by the eleventh century AD, it had increased to thirty-nine. This development model can be found in other parts of Europe because it is possible to build a castle quickly. Before the advent of the artillery, the defenders of the castle had a greater advantage than the siege.

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