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Terrestrial planet Mars

Terrestrial planet Mars (Picture 1)

Mars is one of the eight planets in the solar system. It is the fourth planet in the solar system from the inside to the outside. It belongs to a terrestrial planet and has a diameter of about 53% of the Earth and a mass of 11% of the Earth. The inclination angle and rotation period of the rotation axis are similar to those of the Earth, and the revolution is about twice the time of the Earth revolution. Mars is close to the Earth at a distance of about 55 million kilometers, and the longest distance is more than 400 million kilometers. Close contact between the two occurs approximately every 15 years. The orange-red appearance of Mars is the hematite on the surface. In ancient Chinese books, Mars is called "the illusion star", and in ancient Western times (the ancient Rome) it is called "God of Mars."

Mars is basically a desert planet with surface dunes and gravel all over and no stable liquid water (September 28, 2015, NASA announced a small amount of water on Mars. According to Agence France-Presse reported on July 25, 2018, Europe Researchers at the Space Agency (ESA) said the first liquid groundwater lake was discovered on Mars. The atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide is both thin and cold, and dust is suspended in it, and dust storms often occur every year. The polar caps of water ice and dry ice on both sides of Mars will grow with the seasons.

Compared with the Earth, Mars geological activities are less active, and most of the surface geomorphology is formed in the more active period of ancient times. There are dense craters, volcanoes and gorges, including the highest mountain in the solar system: Mount Olympus and the largest canyon. : Sailor Canyon. Another unique topographical feature is the distinct difference between the northern and southern hemispheres: the south is an ancient, crater-filled highland, and the north is a younger plain.

Mars has two natural moons: Phobos and Phobos, which are irregularly shaped and may be captured asteroids. On Earth, Mars is visible to the naked eye, with a maximum brightness of -2.9, etc., which is darker than Jupiter and Venus in the eight planets. On September 28, 2015, NASA announced the presence of flowing water on Mars. On July 25, 2018, AFP reported that the first liquid lake was discovered on Mars.

On November 26, 2011, NASA's Curiosity was launched and then successfully entered the orbit to Mars, the first nuclear-powered rover. On August 6, 2012, Curiosity landed on Mars and will begin a two-year mission to Mars. On September 27, 2012, the image sent back by the "Curious" Mars Rover showed that there was water on the surface of Mars. The European Space Agency hopes to send humans to Mars between 2030 and 2035. Prior to this, there were other probing tasks, including ExoMars and Mars sample retrieval tasks.

A total of 9 high-resolution pictures:
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